On the Basic Principles of Economic Animal Welfare Legislation in China
The"live bear taking gall bladder"incident that has been highly publicized in China is because the public is too cruel to accept the"live bear taking gall bladder"approach,and the opposition to cruel treatment of animals involves animal welfare legislation.However,China has no real animal welfare legislation,so it is impossible to regulate operators.However,the impact of animal welfare legislation in the international community is increasingly far-reaching,and the public's awareness of animal care is growing,so"live bears take courage"will inevitably be pushed to the forefront of public opinion.
The concept of"animal welfare"was clearly proposed from farm animals.In 1976,American Hughes proposed that animals in farm breeding should be in harmony with their environment in terms of mental and physical health.According to the international classification of animals:farm animals(economic animals),experimental animals,companion animals,working animals,recreational animals and wild animals,black bears raised for extracting bear bile should belong to farm animals(economic animals),that is,animals raised for providing humans with meat,eggs,milk and other food,fur,medicine and other animal products.These animal products have become the indispensable survival needs of modern humans,so farm animals(economic animals)have become the most important category of animals in various countries.Article 1 of the 1976 European Convention on the Protection of Agricultural Animals defines farm animals as:"The(farm)animals that meet the purposes of this Convention shall refer to the animals raised or owned for food production,hair,fur,fur and other purposes."This definition points out that the essential meaning of farm animals is to produce food,fur and other products.The main pursuit of breeders is economic interests,and economic value is the main value of farm animals.Therefore,it is also called economic animals in some countries.The author thinks that it is more in line with the national conditions to call it economic animals in China.
Animal welfare legislation originated in the West and began in the 19th century in Britain.The early animal welfare legislation was mainly against cruelty to animals.In the 20th century,especially after World War II,the animal welfare legislation entered a comprehensive development stage.From the prohibition of cruelty to animal cruelty to the welfare development of animals in all aspects,the farm animal welfare legislation attracted particular attention.Taking the EU as an example,not only does each member state have fairly complete farm animal welfare legislation,but also conventions and directives applicable to the entire EU member state,such as the 1976 European Convention on the Protection of Agricultural and Livestock Animals,the 1991 Council Directive on the Protection of Animals in Transit and the 1998 Council Directive on the Protection of Agricultural and Livestock Animals.With the development of farm animal welfare legislation in various countries today,the legislation has been very specific and detailed.Specifically,special welfare legislation has been formulated for laying hens,calves,pigs,etc.of farm animals,and each link of farm animal breeding has been standardized,such as the size,temperature,humidity,lighting,building materials,etc.of the breeding places,the diet,drinking water,medical treatment,transportation There are very detailed animal welfare requirements in slaughtering and other links.In Europe,animal welfare has gone deep into people's daily life.For example,the hamburger packaging will indicate that the chicken and eggs used are produced from farms that meet the requirements of animal welfare.The development of farm animal welfare legislation in the world has affected the field of international trade.Animal welfare is not only reflected in the domestic laws of some countries,but also stipulated in the relevant rules of the World Trade Organization.